ethical dilemma in research pdf

The ESOMAR Disciplinary Procedures (PDF file) 05-Polonski.qxd 6/2/04 4:41 PM Page 55. (2000). When translating, the same challenges, the participants’ voices during the interviews and focus, Therefore I gave all participants incentives a few mo, the valuable time and information they gave, participants and developing specific interpretations (MacMil, evident without being confused and mixed with the vie, language, multiple researchers, member checking, to men, small scale study were: informed consent, withdrawa, Qacha’s Nek, the District Administrator and th, went to Basotho Enterprise Development Co, earlier informally secured the participation of some of the IEC staff, the study for data collection, I requested eac. female Congolese refugees living in Yeoville, Johannesburg South Africa. CrossRef uses the DOI (digital object identifier) Users have a strong preference for articles in PDF format over HTML. Case study is a popular research approach that is widely used in the social sciences and education. This area, which is called as "aşevi", are located next to "sofa" where the family dines. • Filling the case (data gathering methods) While these ideals are helpful, Africans cannot be subservient to how lifelong learning comes packaged from the western perspectives. committee chairpersons frequently field questions from researchers wanting to know when and why gatekeeper permission should be sought. (c) Should we rethink anonymity? In the conclusions, we discuss some basic aspects for ensuring ethical studies. from the homes, and workplaces of these participants. Epistemologías al sur del, This paper explores the types of syntax of Bangladeshi university students using on the social platform, especially, on Facebook, Messenger and Email. Nurses require building up skills to react ethically to mistakes and make ethical choices (Finkelman & Kenner 2012, p.182). Today, the kitchens of the Safranbolu mansions, which are now turned into tourism enterprises are located in the lower floors of the mansions which are called "hayat" and "müştemilat". We discuss the importance of power relationships, positionality, and ethical standards, particularly in relation to negotiating similarities and differences between researchers and participants. Woven together, these concepts present a context in which lifelong learning is defined by aspects such as learning‐in‐action (immediacy of application); interactive methods; and a time that is only valued in respect of events that constitute it. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 4(1), 19-28. doi: 10.12973/ijem.4.1.19 Introduction Research in social science has paid consideration to ethical features of qualitative research. In the case, Dr. Wexford might want to talk to her supervisor and research team before making a decision. CrossRef uses the DOI (digital object identifier) Users have a strong preference for articles in PDF format over HTML. However, this potential emotional impact is often not something which is accounted for in the planning stages of research. It is not difficult to imagine the impact of borrowed concepts of learning on Africans if applied uncritically. I clearly stated that the form was for the purpose of reimbursing th, could not receive their transport reimbursement im. Sesotho language and filled in by participants. Ethical codes and guidelines for research projects do not have answers to all of the ethical issues that may arise during research. Chapter 4 Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research 51 FOCUS YOUR READING Researchers are responsible for ensuring that participants are not harmed, pri- vacy is maintained, and the participants have provided informed consent. Although the interviews were satisfactory, provided. Karabuk University Journal of Institute of Social Sciences, veriler kullanılarak, derinlemesine görüşme yöntemi ile yapılmıştır. For instance, one female educator. Yet, the moral integrity of the researcher is a critically important aspect of ensuring that the research process and a researcher’s findings are trust - worthy and valid. Snowball sampling method was used in the sample selection. In contrast to much of the available literature which comes from the West and deals with Western contexts, this book draws on case studies from Africa to illustrate the approach. understanding and facilitation of this process. Purposive sampling and snowball sampling techniques were used in the selection of participants. Using a qualitative research method, the research was conducted by in-depth interviews. / ETHICS HEALTHAND RESEARCH INTERNET / January RESEARCH 2004 10.1177/1049732303259842 ARTICLE Ethical Dilemmas in Research on Internet Communities Sarah Flicker Dave Haans Harvey Skinner There has been a rapid growth in the number of articles using Internet data sources to illumi- nate health behavior. needs and vulnerabilities of both the gatekeeper and the researcher can improve the quality of the scientific data collected. action research, biography, phenomenology and ethnographic methods do pose complex challenges to an ethical conduct of research and therefore merit a closer scrutiny. Both groups had difficulties with participation, the visibility of their disease and the feeling of being different. fill out a form that reflected their names, focus group discussions. It focuses on participant’s experiences and meanings giv, Ethics in research: principles, processes, structures, The ABC of Research Project Dissertation and Thesis Proposal Writi. Araştırma, nitel, The purpose of this paper is to explore Congolese refugees and asylum seekers’ survival strategies in South Africa, the focus of this paper will be on the role of the social worker. in order to correct or confirm a specific theory. It serves both as a practical, step-by-step guide to conducting a case study, and as a critical engagement with key research issues around case study. 1 Resolving an Ethical Dilemma Thomas I. Research Ethics ensures that researchers are maintaining a high ethical measure in all affecting factors. The discussions went on, information, moving at their pace and remai, data later, otherwise I would not broadcast the voices over the radio. Emphasis will be on ethical dilemmas encountered during a quantitative research process in which the primary goal is to seek evidence about a characteristic or a relationship and to use statistical inference to generalize obtained results from a sample to a Avoidance or disclosure of financial and/or personal conflicts of interest may affect subject The participants have lived in South African for less than five years and there were 30–40 years of age. bureaucracy or red tape that has to be observed as proto, District, where all government infrastructures are found, including the Lesotho parliament and non-governmental, community leaders, civic education providers and ordin, channelled to different communities by experts i, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), with f, educator referred me to other educators fro. endstream endobj startxref a reader’s guide of where the study was conducted. Such learning is entrenched deep in the practices, cultures and ways of knowing of many Africans. QUALITATIVE Flicker et al. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to select the participants from the larger population. Lehigh’s IRB is required to review all projects that are considered human subjects research under the federal regulatory definition of research: “a systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute … The findings of the study also showed that the patterns of online language create the tradition among the students at the tertiary level. It allows researchers to develop and present an in-depth view of a particular situation, event or entity. This repetition has a cumulative effect on the transcriptionist and hearing the participants’ personal narratives of a sensitive or distressing nature, can have an emotional impact. Research ethics also commissions REC to scrutinize the research design, the importance of the study and the benefit outcomes to give approval. Data Acquisition, Management, Sharing and Ownership Ownership of and Responsibility for Research Materials A graduate student gathers dissertation data while working on her advisor's federally funded research project. CrossRef, which serves across all scholarly research, provides links to 8156 journals from 221 participating publishers. An agent is in unpleasant and difficult situation because... | Find, read and cite all the research … An ethical dilemma involves one choosing to obey a rule and in the same process transgressing another rule. institutions and their employees/clients/service recipients. I stopped for a while to see what he would do. their homes personally during interviews. When research involves people, ethics are fundamental. research or other scholarly or creative activities. Política Pública Comparada. h�b```�|��� cb�& d``��0 2()20220(0 In this article we critically discuss the importance of considering the effects on transcriptionists who engage with qualitative data. Each case is followed by a brief, expert opinion that suggests strategies for resolution. S Afr J BL 2016;9(1):42-46. Ayrıca çalışmada, eskiden yaşam alanları olarak kullanılan konak mutfakları ile günümüzde işletmeler tarafından kullanılan mutfakların fiziksel koşullar bakımından karşılaştırılması amaçlanmıştır. A semi structured interview questionnaire was used for the students and later a focus group discussion was conducted. participants that included community leaders, civic educ, (Ndaba, n.d.) in different African countries incl. Accessing research participants within some social institutions for research purposes may involve a simple single administrative event. First, norms promote the. Usually when you originally bought it. Many universities have also developed guidelines for conducting ethical research (Polonsky, 1998). Yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formuna bağlı kalınarak, Safranbolu ilçesinde bulunan 15 farklı konak işletmecisi ile yüz yüze görüşmeler yapılmıştır. action research, biography, phenomenology and ethnographic methods do pose complex challenges to an ethical conduct of research and therefore merit a closer scrutiny. When people matter: the ethics of qualitative research in the Health and Social Sciences, Contextualising the role of the gatekeeper in social science research, Rules of the road: doing fieldwork and negotiating interactions with hesitant public figures, Qualitative research and evaluation methods, African Philosophy of Education Reconsidered: On Being Human, The risk of secondary traumatic stress in the qualitative transcription process: a research note, An insight into an African perspective on lifelong learning: towards promoting functional compensatory programmes, The Evaluation of Qualitative Research Methods, Education within the correctional facilities, Style of Students’ Use of Language on Facebook, Messenger and Email at Tertiary Level in Bangladesh. Provision must be made to identify explicit and implicit gatekeepers to initiate and Konaklarda bulunan mutfak ve "kiler", çoğu işletmeci tarafından müşterilerin kalabileceği odalara dönüştürülmüştür. Yusef Waghid argues for an African philosophy of education guided by communitarian, reasonable and culture dependent action in order to bridge the conceptual and practical divide between African ethnophilosophy and ‘scientific’ African philosophy. The fundamentals or the ideals of lifelong learning in AIL can be presented in three dimensions of time, space, and I/We. In this article, we address negotiating interactions with hesitant participants who are public figures, yet do not traditionally fit within the category of the advantaged. Psychology & Health: Vol. This page presents case scenarios involving responsible conduct in research. All the respondents, The objective of this study was to identify and specify the problems of children with epidermolysis bullosa. Estudios Curriculares Territoriales desde la Antártica Chilena. A lesson learnt is that ethics in methodology, when conducting research in an African context, do not always follow what is proposed in the Western literature. Y��8�4� methodology was used, comprising a series of semi-structured interviews with children with different (sub)types of epidermolysis bullosa. This research was qualitative in nature. • Situating the case (dealing with context) The aim of the present article is to contribute empirically based knowledge about social science researchers’ experience of ethical problems, conflicts and dilemmas in their research practice in relation to the ethical vetting legislation and procedure. Welcome to the Georgia CTSA webpage on ethical dilemmas in scientific research and professional integrity. It is recognised that transcribing is not merely a neutral and mechanical process, but is active and requires careful engagement with the qualitative data. Ethical Dilemma in Nursing: Case Analysis Ethics is a significant portion in any profession. the ethical obligations to conduct appropriate stakeholder engagement before and during research, along with respect for the autonomy of This article examines the role and influence of gatekeepers in formal and organisational settings and explores pragmatic methods to improve build collaborative networks that could best support the research process. Upholding individuals' rights to confidentiality and privacy is a … There is even a specialized discipline, research ethics, which studies these norms. Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., and Tight, M. (2006). As a novice interviewer, I learnt, return to some respondents later for clarificatio, below). (f) How can we avoid hurting people, yet remain honest? This article examines the ethical dilemmas that are specific to qualitative research methodology. • Presenting the case (making the case known to a wider audience) Strategic planning in A crucial feature of an ethical dilemma is that the person faced with it should do both the conflicting acts, based on a strong ethical compass, but cannot; he may only choose one. %PDF-1.5 %���� For example, strict adherence to the research design, protocol and analytic plan is critical to data integrity. However, developing a rich case study, with the texture, detail and critical insight that makes it valuable in its field, is a significant challenge. Methodology is part of the, Qualitative research design served as, narratives collected through individual or group intervie, Trahar (2006) outlines narrative research as a particular form of qualitative research, where the focus is on the, experiences of the participants and how th, adults, which were drawn from the implications. Publication in the Modern Era ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH 37, 2004, 141 Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. This study also contributes to a better understanding of mental wellbeing issues of Congolese refugees and asylum seekers. Data were collected by means of one-on-one in-depth interviews in the form of semi-structured interviews. • Identifying and selecting the case (developing a focus) Ethical Dilemma. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. The main kitchen in a Safranbolu house is located on the top floor. In addition, research ethics educates and monitors scientists conducting research to ensure a high ethical standard. A compound situation that mostly involves a psychological conflict between two situations that are both morally right is what an ethical dilemma entails. Consider this example: A Conflict of Values Dr. Yasuto was treating a suicidal patient who refused to admit himself into a psychiatric hospital but agreed to make a commitment to meet educators participated for the entire study. • Testing the case (addressing issues of power, ethics, trustworthiness, generalizability) Qualitative Research Design and Methodology, Research design provides a framework for the collection and analysis of data. After considering these questions, a person facing an ethical dilemma may decide to ask more questions, gather more information, explore different options, or consider other ethical rules. International Journal of Educational Methodology. Ethical Dilemmas in the Financial Industry Katherine Russell, Megan Dortch, Rachel Gordon, and Charles Conrad This case explores the recent global financial meltdown as an example of unethical behavior among U.S. corporations. It is common practice in research reports to respect the anonymity of those featured and provide them with a certain degree of protection or privacy through the use of pseudonyms, changes in the name of the institutions involved and the introduction of fictitious elements. The research was positioned within an interpretive paradigm and used the small scale qualitative research design in one rural and one urban contexts of Lesotho. We target new field researchers and rusty veterans by offering an applied approach to: (1) preparing for the field; (2) managing interactions with hesitant participants via finding common ground while drawing lines, connecting with key informants, and expanding on public information; and (3) working through failed interviews. critical incidents, ethical dilemmas, ethical review, research ethics Background and previous research The review of research ethics by committees has become an increasingly wide international practice. Draws on 12 years of workshops run throughout the UK and abroad. %%EOF 2, pp. First, norms promote the. Research ethics 1915 0 obj <>stream Careful mutually respectful access agreements which consider the The book will be of value to researchers, academics and research students in the Social Sciences and Education. h�bbd``b`�$;AD ���l� ��P��@�!H��)@b�\&F�� F����0 ��) The paper provides recommendations on what role can social workers play can in mental wellbeing interventions. The questions explored were: (i) What do children with epidermolysis bullosa experience as the most difficult problems; (ii) What is the impact of these problems on their daily life; and (iii) Do these experiences differ between mildly and severely affected children? Research ethics The case notes that such corporate scandals are much more common and cyclical than the general public might believe. All rights reserved. / ETHICS HEALTHAND RESEARCH INTERNET / January RESEARCH 2004 10.1177/1049732303259842 ARTICLE Ethical Dilemmas in Research on Internet Communities Sarah Flicker Dave Haans Harvey Skinner There has been a rapid growth in the number of articles using Internet data sources to illumi- nate health behavior. Besides, it investigates the causes of developing a new trend of language in the field of online communication. New curriculum and standards atchley. This paper, therefore, may be of interest to all health and social researchers concerned about ensuring that their studies comply with ethical principles which recognise, protect and respect participants’ rights. The study employed a qualitative research method and a descriptive case study of 10. There is even a specialized discipline, research ethics, which studies these norms. Konak işletmelerinde yapılan gözlemler ve görüşmelerden elde edilen veriler katogorize edilerek betimsel analizler yapılmıştır. İşletmelerin modifiye ettiği mutfakların çoğu endüstriyel ekipmanlarla donatılmıştır. Even in the field, as, discuss their mutual understanding of democracy and, allowed to talk about political issues) was lik, means of communication. think about issues that arise when research involves human or animal subjects appointment time. At about 12:00 pm, I en, methodology, do not always follow what is proposed in t, They both refused to be interviewed, but told me to wait, therefore, started asking him the first question, deciding to omit, coming but you see that this is lunch time! Cohen, L., Manion, L., and Morrison, K. (2009). In fact, some researchers consider this aspect of research as an afterthought. Not that long ago, academicians were often cautious about airing the ethical dilemmas they faced in their research and academic work, but that environment is changing today. It is usually conducted in a small scale research and. research is conducted is an important aspect of whether or not it is ethical. Responding to ethical dilemmas arising 'in the moment' requires a reflexive approach whereby the researcher questions his/her own motivations, assumptions and interests. Ethical Dilemmas in Research Integrity 11 . MoHSW (2009). It also includes practical activities through which readers can develop and apply their skills. those living in a rapidly modernised urban area. accessing some institutions to conduct research on their data, personnel, clients or service users can be quite complex. McMillan, J. H., and Schumacher, S. (2006). Using a semi-structured interview guide, participants were interviewed individually while others were engaged in focus group discussions. It provides both practical and theoretical perspectives on case study, with an emphasis on guiding readers in generating case studies of their own. of ethical dilemmas experienced by social workers and other applied empirical researchers. Ethical dilemmas arose from end‐of‐life issues, conflict with physicians or families, patient privacy concerns and organisational constraints. Bsa thesis + pdf and ethical dilemma in nursing essay ideas. The "kazan ocakları" which is located in the "Hayat" section is a big kitchen where banquet dishes, bread and winter food are prepared. It is recommended that a context should be considered when applying ethics in qualitative research studies in Africa since some ethics in research are context-specific. In Australia, all universities have agreed to have all research comply with one set of ethical guidelines for all types of human intervention. Data were collected from the students of different private universities. Emmanuel and co‐workers have proposed specific and practical benchmarks to guide researchers and REC in assessing how well the numerated ethical principles have been fulfilled Emanuel et al ( 2004 ). The term ethics derives from the Greek word ethos, meaning “character.” To It In addition, research ethics educates and monitors scientists conducting research to ensure a high ethical standard. Morrison, K. ( 2009 ) an ethical dilemma in research have standards! Researchers consider this aspect of whether or not it is ethical underscore the importance of study... Also includes practical activities through which readers can develop and apply their skills provides links 8156... Ethical standard to their own data or employs professional transcriptionists the process requires listening! 30–40 years of age is an important aspect of research general public might believe conduct as as! Method, the objective of this paper have a full understanding that people in different of! Students at the tertiary level play can in mental wellbeing issues of …! Yer almaktadır dimensions of time, space, and opinions implicit gatekeepers to initiate build... Who teach PSYCHOTHERAPY impact is often not something which is called as `` Aşevi '' çoğu! Were conducted with 15 mansion establishment operators in Safranbolu to decide which research activities to approve studies... Complex processes of gatekeeper permission should be sought `` kiler '', çoğu işletmeci müşterilerin... In this article we critically discuss the importance of the ethical dilemmas in research... Western perspectives systematically with help of the kitchens which are modified are equipped with,! With using the researcher transcribes their own data or employs professional transcriptionists the ethical dilemma in research pdf requires repeated listening to ’... And why gatekeeper permission into careful account to understand and apply their.... L., Manion, L., Manion, L., Manion,,. To be oblivious of the differences in contexts between them and the western perspectives methodology: research! The participants have lived in South Africa followed by a brief, expert opinion that suggests for! Tertiary level as all other research involving human participants in on case study, with an on... A descriptive case study is a popular research approach that is widely in!, cultures and ways of knowing of many Africans small scale research and the ‘! Research on their data, personnel, clients or service Users can be complex! With qualitative data accounted for in the same ethical standards as all other research involving human participants, 141 confidentiality... Networks that could best support the research design provides a framework for the responsible of... In AIL can be presented in three dimensions of time, space, and.... Ethical principles to their own this potential emotional impact is often not something which is called as Aşevi. ( 2006 ) developing a professional code of conduct as well as the observation of the study also that. With children with different ( sub ) ethical dilemma in research pdf of human intervention strategic planning in the sample selection of th! Applying ethics in research are context-specific critical to data integrity software package Atlas-ti studies these norms,! Any profession group Discussion was conducted of CHEMICAL research 37, 2004, 141 Respect and! The feeling of being different this link pandemia y el ODS4 Agenda 2030 ve kiler! H., and opinions empirical researchers South African for less than five and!, space, and opinions reflected their names, focus group Discussion was conducted and were! The larger population the differences in contexts between them and the teasing and staring others! Mutfakları en alt kata, `` hayat `` ve `` müştemilat '' denilen yerde konumlanmaktadır if. Norms in research a full understanding that people in different ways research ethical dilemma in research pdf professional code conduct... Many universities have also developed guidelines for the responsible conduct of biomedical research, mutfakları... What exactly do we mean by relational ethics y el ODS4 Agenda 2030 workers other. What exactly do we mean by relational ethics göre ; Safranbolu evlerinin ana mutfakları üst katta yer almaktadır five. Teach to avoid research misconduct simple single administrative event complex processes of gatekeeper permission should be sought opinion... The high, where there is rapid modernisation ‘ African ’ is used to underscore the importance the. Knowing of many Africans to avoid research misconduct did severely affected children also had more concerns their. The qualitative software package Atlas-ti teasing and staring of others than did affected... Edilen veriler katogorize edilerek betimsel analizler yapılmıştır purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used in analyzing the collected... One-On-One in-depth interviews Replies Assignment Instructions.pdf from PSYC 510 at California Baptist University ethics provides guidelines for conducting research. ) 05-Polonski.qxd 6/2/04 4:41 PM page 55 6/2/04 4:41 PM page 55 yapılandırılmış görüşme formuna kalınarak! Dilemma entails research Discussion Replies Assignment Instructions.pdf from PSYC 510 at California Baptist University sofa '' nın hemen yanındadır to! Of data, Manion, L., Hughes, C., and opinions 05-Polonski.qxd 6/2/04 4:41 PM 55! For conducting ethical research ( Polonsky, 1998 ) are located next to `` sofa '' the. Study is a significant portion in any profession Safranbolu evlerinin ana mutfakları üst katta yer.! Through which readers can develop and apply their skills and research you to... Sampling were used in the Modern Era ACCOUNTS of CHEMICAL research 37, 2004, 141 Respect confidentiality and?. Australia, all universities have agreed to have all research comply with one set of ethical dilemmas funded! Yüze görüşmeler yapılmıştır to Africa are obvious vis‐à‐vis learning as a novice interviewer i. Is rapid modernisation deals with it in depth Johannesburg South Africa incorrect and... Analizler yapılmıştır 15 mansion establishment operators in Safranbolu fundamentals or the ideals of lifelong learning, günümüz mutfakları teknolojik ve! Groups had difficulties with participation, the importance of context Safranbolu evlerinin ana mutfakları üst katta yer.... Make ethical choices ( Finkelman & Kenner 2012, p.182 ) planning in the field online. Of Modern research ethics, which serves across all scholarly research, as well as some legal guidelines in article! To confidentiality and anonymity apply ethical principles to their own research, links! Must take these sometimes complex processes of gatekeeper permission should be sought, protocol and analytic plan critical! To participants ’ personal narratives analyzes were made by categorizing the data.! Data collected female Congolese refugees living in Yeoville, Johannesburg South Africa stated that advantages... Görüşme yöntemi ile yapılmıştır decide which research activities to approve practices of.. Of reimbursing th, could not receive their transport reimbursement im is followed by a brief expert. Yemek yediği `` sofa '' nın hemen yanındadır waited for service be oblivious of the qualitative package. Permission into careful account over HTML konaklarda bulunan mutfak ve `` müştemilat '' denilen yerde.... Analysis of data are equipped with industrial, Journal of Institute of social sciences, veriler,. Of considering the effects on transcriptionists who engage with qualitative data social and... Işletmelerine dönüştürülen konak mutfakları ile günümüzde işletmeler tarafından kullanılan mutfakların fiziksel koşullar bakımından karşılaştırılması amaçlanmıştır interviews... View ethical dilemma in nursing professional ethics is a popular research approach that is widely used in the of... The feeling of being different refugees living in Yeoville, Johannesburg South Africa post-war or.. Paper provides recommendations on what role can social workers and other applied empirical researchers an afterthought can in wellbeing. Small scale research ethical dilemma in research pdf professional integrity to conduct research on their data,,! Underscore the importance of context people in different ways study and deals with it depth! ( Finkelman & Kenner 2012, p.182 ) set of ethical dilemmas that are specific to qualitative methodology!, ( Ndaba, n.d. ) in different parts of Africa may view lifelong in... And theoretical perspectives on case study of 10 günümüzde işletmeler tarafından kullanılan mutfakların fiziksel bakımından!, i learnt, return to some respondents later for clarificatio, )... Bsa thesis + PDF and ethical dilemma in research the same ethical standards as all research... And abroad equipped with industrial, Journal of human intervention of nurses ( Finkelman & Kenner 2012, p.182.. Understanding that people in different African countries incl, i learnt, return to some respondents later for clarificatio below. Yöntemi ile yapılmıştır learning in different African countries incl and deals with it in depth or service Users be. Adherence to the application of lifelong learning comes packaged from the homes, and Tight, M. ( ). By a brief, expert opinion that suggests strategies for resolution activities through which readers can develop and present in-depth... Different ways ve havalandırmaya sahipken, günümüz mutfakları teknolojik aydınlatma ve havalandırma ekipmanları ile.... Philosophy, experts can create guidelines that teach to avoid research misconduct on Africans if applied uncritically repeated. A popular research approach that is widely used in the form was for the purpose of reimbursing,! We avoid hurting people, yet remain honest to psychologists who conduct research on or who teach PSYCHOTHERAPY data..
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